It is important for clinicians to understand, incorporate, and follow a logical, yet relevant order when assessing a patient’s presenting problem. This allows for a more educated and accurate diagnosis. In this lecture we will review musculoskeletal related conditions relevant to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines. Discerning through an algorithmic approach to the patient’s history, assessment, and presenting indicators what signals the ordering of basic and advanced imaging, diagnostic studies, and/or pertinent referrals to other specialties. Our discussion will include components on treatment objectives, current frequency and duration of care standards, and setting and achieving goals for patient treatment, recovery, and discharge. We will review current “evidence-based” treatment protocols, keeping in mind the utilization of clinical judgment is always the main precipitating factor in patient care.